5G is a 3GPP-based development of 4G. 5-G operates in low, mid, and high bands. Previous generations employed low-band spectrum.
Verizon, Vodafone, and KDDI are creating 5G networks. Many carriers have low-band and high-band spectrum for greater coverage and speed.
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5-G is quicker than 4G.
5G theoretically delivers 10 Gbps, 100 times faster than 4G. Therefore, 5G download rates are 1.4 to 14 times quicker than 4G.
As carriers roll out 5G, speeds will rise. 5G non-standalone (NSA) runs on the existing 4G network, restricting speeds. As the remainder of the network is built (transport, core, etc.), 5G standalone (SA) will reach its intended speeds. Connectivity band affects speed.
High band is fastest but has distance and building penetration issues.
Slower low band has better distance and penetration.
Midband is fast and far.
Since January 2020, 61 nations have installed commercial 5-G networks. Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Australia, Taiwan, Canada, Kuwait, Switzerland, Hong Kong, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK have faster 5-G download speeds than the U.S. Saudi Arabia and South Korea have better 5G speeds because they employ more midband spectrum.
5-G download speed is the rate at which data is transferred. Music, movies, and email are included. 5-G download speeds could reach 10-20 Gbps, 100 times faster than 4G.
5-G upload speed is how fast your device sends data to the network and endpoint. Uploads are slower than downloads. 5-G uploads are 30% faster than 4G.
mmWave spectrum is high-band and generally underused. mmWave has 24-100 GHz wavelengths.
Millimeter wave bands offer rapid data rates but limited coverage. Large items like buildings and trees can obstruct these bands. mmWave can be used with lower-band radio to balance speed and coverage.
mmWave will likely serve future IoT applications.